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Tuesday, 11 September 2012

World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Jumping Facts

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Status of World Trade Center site, 11 years later:-
World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Jumping Facts
World Trade Center Before  Attack  
New York: Eleven years after terrorists attacked the World Trade Center, the new multibillion-dollar World Trade Center once again dominates the lower Manhattan skyline. Hundreds of construction workers are at the 16-acre (6.5-hectare) site every day, and tourists snap thousands of photos of the two towers that are nearing completion.

Here is a look at the status of the trade center's major components, according to its developers:
 Most of the 8-acre (3.2-hectare) memorial quadrangle at the World Trade Center opened last year on the 10th anniversary of the attacks. Since then, some 4.5 million people have visited the memorial, with its twin reflecting pools where the towers stood. But a museum being built in a cavern beneath the plaza is still incomplete. Work all but stopped last fall because of a funding dispute between the memorial foundation and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, but on Monday the two parties announced an agreement that will pave the way for its eventual completion. Joseph Daniels, president of the National Sept. 11 Memorial and Museum, said that once construction resumes it will take more than a year to finish the job, meaning the museum might not open until 2014.

One World Trade Center, formerly known as the Freedom Tower, will open in 2014 on the northwest corner of the trade center site with 3 million square feet (280,000 square meters) of office space. Tenants so far include magazine publisher Conde Nast and the federal government's General Services Administration. The spire atop the 104-story building will reach the symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541.3 meters). There will be observation decks on the 100th, 101st and 102nd floors. The building without the spire has reached its full height of 1,368 feet (417 meters). It is expected to cost $3.9 billion by the time it is finished.

The first office building to open will be the 72-story 4 World Trade Center at the southeast corner of the site. It has reached its full height of 977 feet (298 meters) and is scheduled to open in October 2013. Tenants will include the Port Authority, the bi-state agency that owns the trade center site and lost its headquarters when the twin towers were attacked.
World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Jumping Facts
World Trade Center Attack 
Just north of 4 World Trade Center is 3 World Trade Center, which is now an eight-story stub but will reach 80 stories and 1,150 feet (350.5 meters) when it's complete. Developer Larry Silverstein is required to lease at least 400,000 square feet (37,160 square meters) of space before finishing the building. Silverstein's team is projecting a completion date of 2015 or 2016.

At the northeast corner of the site, 2 World Trade Center is up only to street level. The building is planned as an 88-story skyscraper but will not be built until the commercial real estate market picks up enough to fill it.

The new transportation hub at the trade center will connect 13 subway lines and PATH trains to New Jersey when it opens in 2015. It will replace the temporary PATH station that was built after the Sept. 11 attacks. Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, the station will serve 250,000 travelers a day. There will be two levels of retail space. None of the tenants has been announced yet. The cost of the transportation hub, originally pegged at $2.2 billion, is now expected to exceed $3.5 billion.
World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Jumping
World Trade Center Attack bombing
A performing arts center planned for the site has been in limbo for years. A board of directors was named this year and was given the task of raising funds to build the center, which is to include a 1,000-seat theater.
An underground vehicle security center and bus parking.

Americans prepare to mark 11th anniversary of World Trade Centre attacks

Washington: Thousands will gather on Tuesday in New York, suburban Washington and rural Pennsylvania to mark the 11th anniversary of the Sept. 11 attacks, but at the somber day's biggest venue, Ground Zero in lower Manhattan, this year's observance will be missing a key feature from years past: politicians' voices.

In previous years, politicians including U.S. presidents, state governors and New York City mayors have participated in the reading of the names, or have read from the Bible or recited passages from literature.

This year, only the families of the more than 2,750 who were killed when militant Islamist hijackers crashed two jetliners into the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, causing their collapse, will appear on the podium to read their names.

World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Facts
World Trade Center Attack Date
Politicians may still attend, but under event rules set down in July by the National September 11 Memorial and Museum, chaired by New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, none may speak or participate in the reading of names. Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano will attend the New York ceremony this year.

The restrictions will not extend to politicians at the other remembrances, however.

At the Pentagon outside of Washington, where more than 180 were killed when a hijacked plane was flown into it, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta will speak in a ceremony that will be closed to the public, attended only by victims' families.

Vice President Joe Biden will deliver remarks in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, where 40 passengers aboard United Flight 93 were killed when that plane crashed as they revolted against their hijackers.

"How we handle the legacy of these 40 people and what they did, what they kept from happening, is really more of a statement about ourselves, about what we value as a society," said Patrick White, current president of Families of Flight 93. White's cousin, Joey Nacke II, was among the passengers who stormed the cockpit.

U.S. authorities say the al Qaeda hijackers planned to crash that plane into the U.S. Capitol in Washington.

Like so many of the previous anniversary dates, this year's ceremonies promise to unfold beneath blue skies and cool, early fall temperatures, conditions reminiscent of those on the morning of the 2001 attacks that claimed nearly 3,000 lives at the three sites.

In New York, there will be moments of silence to signal the times of impact of each plane: at 8:46 a.m, 9:03 a.m., 9:37 a.m. and 10:03 a.m.

World Trade Center Attack 9 11 1993 bombing Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Jumping Facts
World Trade Center Attack After 11 Years
Additional silences will be observed at 9:59 a.m. and 10:28 a.m., when the South and North Towers fell.

President Barack Obama and his wife Michelle will participate in a moment of silence on the White House lawn and then attend the Pentagon Ceremony, the White House announced last week.

In Shanksville, the names of 40 crew members and passengers aboard the plane will be read beginning at 10:03 by victims' families and local volunteers who assisted in the aftermath of the attacks. A bell will ring for the name of each of the 40 victims, and a wreath will be laid at the Wall of Names honoring the dead.

Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and White will also deliver remarks, the Parks Service said.
Need to Know News: World Trade Center returns to New York skyline; Romney hits harder in face of Obama bounce
Each day, we here at "Piers Morgan Tonight" put together the news you need to know – from what happened last night to what will happen today.
For September 11, 2012 – World Trade Center returns to New York skyline, Romney hits harder in face of Obama bounce and Jerry 'The King' Lawlercollapses at WWE ringside...

• World Trade Center returns to New York skyline: "Eleven years after terrorist attacks destroyed New York's World Trade Center, the replacement towers are finally taking shape and attracting new tenants. The most prominent - the tower known as 1 WTC – is scheduled for completion in 2014, with 90 floors and 3 million square feet."
World Trade Center Attack 9/11 1993 Story Images/Photos Videos History Date Jumping Facts
World Trade Center Attack After 11 years getting ready New one America's Tallest Building

• Romney hits harder in face of Obama bounce: "Mitt Romney strengthened his attacks on President Barack Obama on Monday in the face of a new CNN/ORC International poll that indicated the Republican challenger in November is losing ground after last week's Democratic National Convention."
• Al Qaeda leader's brother offers peace plan: "The brother of al Qaeda leaderAyman al Zawahiri is proposing to mediate a peace deal between the West and Islamists."

The Attack:-
Ramzi Yousef and a Jordanian friend, Eyad Ismoil, drove a yellow Ryder van into Lower Manhattan, and pulled into the public parking garage beneath the World Trade Center around noon. Yousef ignited the 20-foot fuse, and fled. Twelve minutes later, at 12:17:37 pm, the bomb exploded in the underground garage, generating an estimated pressure of 150,000 psi. The bomb opened a 30-m (98 ft) wide hole through four sublevels of concrete. The detonation velocity of this bomb was about 15,000 ft/s (4.5 km/s). Initial news reports indicated a main transformer may have blown, not realizing a bomb had exploded in the basement.
The bomb instantly cut off the World Trade Center's main electrical power line, knocking out the emergency lighting system. The bomb caused smoke to rise up to the 93rd floor of both towers, including through the stairwells which were not pressurized. With thick smoke filling the stairwells, evacuation was difficult for building occupants and led to many smoke inhalation injuries. 

Hundreds were trapped in elevators in the towers when the power was cut, including a group of 17 kindergartners, on their way down from the South Tower observation deck, who were trapped between the 35th and 36th floors for five hours.
Also as a result of the loss of power most of New York City's radio and television stations lost their over-the-air broadcast signal for almost a week, with television stations only being able to broadcast via cable and satellite via a microwave hookup between the stations and three of the New York area's largest cable companies, CablevisionComcast, and Time Warner Cable. Telephone service for much of Lower Manhattan was also disrupted.

All together, six people were killed and 1,042 others injured, most during the evacuation that followed the blast. A report from the US Fire Administration states that "Among the scores of people who fled to the roofs of the towers, 28 with medical problems were airlifted by New York City police helicopters (...)". It is known that 15 people received traumatic injury from the blast and 20 complained of cardiac problems. One firefighter was hospitalized, while 87 others, 35 police officers, and an EMS worker were also injured in dealing with the fires and other aftermath.

The plan was that if the bomb truck was parked at the right place, the North Tower would fall onto the South Tower, collapsing them both. However, the tower did not collapse, according to Yousef's plan, but the garage was severely damaged in the explosion. Nevertheless, had the van been parked closer to the WTC's poured concrete foundations, Yousef's plan might have succeeded. He escaped to Pakistan several hours after the bombing.
Due to the time at which Yousef left Jersey City, questions linger as to why he waited until noon to attack when the parking area was much less crowded. Conspirator Mahmud Abouhalima later stated that the original plan was to attack the United Nations headquarters earlier in the morning. Author Simon Reeve theorized that something went wrong, such as Yousef encountering too much security, and the target was changed to be the World Trade Center.

Bomb Characteristics:-
Yousef was assisted by Iraqi bomb maker Abdul Rahman Yasin, who helped assemble the complex 1,310-pound (590 kg) bomb, which was made of aurea nitrate main charge with aluminummagnesium and ferric oxide particles surrounding the explosive. The charge used nitroglycerineammonium nitrate dynamite, smokeless powder and fuse as booster explosives. Three tanks of bottled hydrogen were also placed in a circular configuration around the main charge, to enhance the fireball and afterburn of the solid metal particles. The use of compressed gas cylinders in this type of attack closely resembles the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing 10 years earlier. Both of these attacks used compressed gas cylinders to create fuel-air andthermobaric bombs that release more energy than conventional high explosives. 

According to testimony in the bomb trial, only once before the 1993 attack had the FBI recorded a bomb that used urea nitrate.
The Ryder van used in the bombing had 295 cubic feet (8.4 m3) of space, which would hold up to 2,000 pounds (910 kg) of explosives. However, the van was not filled to capacity. Yousef used four 20 ft (6 m) long fuses, all covered in surgical tubing. Yasin calculated that the fuse would trigger the bomb in twelve minutes after he had used a cigarette lighter to light the fuse.

Yousef wanted the smoke to remain in the tower, therefore catching the public eye by smothering people inside, killing them slowly. He anticipated Tower One collapsing onto Tower Two after the blast.
There remains a popular belief that there was cyanide in the bomb, which is reinforced by Judge Duffy's statement at sentencing, "[y]ou had sodium cyanide around, and I’m sure it was in the bomb." However, the bomb's true composition was not able to be ascertained from the crime scene and Robert Blitzer, a senior FBI official who worked on the case, stated that there was "no forensic evidence indicating the presence of sodium cyanide at the bomb site." Furthermore, Yousef is said only to have considered adding cyanide to the bomb, and to have regretted not doing so in Peter Lance's book 1000 Years for Revenge"


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