google-site-verification: google1c0c3254b0a96609.html PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does it stand ISRO Latest News Images Video Definition ~ Trending World

Sunday, 9 September 2012

PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does it stand ISRO Latest News Images Video Definition

PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.PSLV-C21 Does it stand.PSLV-C21 ISRO.PSLV-C21 Latest News.PSLV-C21 & its Images.PSLV-C21 Videos.PSLV-C21 Definition.PSLV-C21 Definitions is Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.PLSV-C21 was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits.
PLSC [Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle]:-
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: ध्रुवीय उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण यान), commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 52 satellites (26 Indian satellites and 26 foreign satellites) into a variety of orbits to date.
PSLV has a flyaway cost of 17 million USD for each launch.
PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does it stand ISRO Latest News Images Video Definition
PSLV-C21 Successful
SRIHARIKOTA (PTI): India on Sunday successfully launched its 100th space mission with the indigenous PSLV-C21 rocket putting in orbit two foreign satellites.
In a copybook launch, witnessed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, ISRO's workhorse PSLV placed in orbit France's SPOT-6 satellite and Japanese spacecraft PROTIERES, some 18 minutes after a perfect lift off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre here.

The launch, scheduled for 9.51 a.m., was delayed by two minutes at the end of the 51-hour countdown.

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), on its 22nd flight, soared into an overcast sky at 9.53 a.m. carrying the 720 kg French satellite, the heaviest satellite to be launched by India for a foreign client.

The mission was described as "a spectacular success" and a milestone by Mr Manmohan Singh, who keenly watched the entire launch sequence and applauded each stage separation culminating in the placing of the two satellites in orbit.

The launch was a landmark for Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) which began its space odyssey on a humble note when it launched the indigenous 'Aryabhatta' on board a Russian rocket on April 19, 1975.

The launch has yet again demonstrated the versatility and robustness of PSLV with the rocket completing its 21st successful mission in a row since its first failed flight in September 1993.

No Indian satellite was onboard today's flight which is the third wholly commercial launch undertaken by ISRO for foreign clients.

SPOT-6 is the biggest commercial lift so far since India forayed into the money spinning commercial satellite launch services after 350 kg Agile of Italy put in orbit in 2007 by PSLV. Twelve other foreign commercial satellites launched by ISRO weighed below 300 kg.
PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does it stand ISRO Latest News Images Video
PSLV-C21
Significantly, France's five earlier SPOT satellites were launched by European Araine rocket.

SPOT-6, built by ASTRIUM SAS, a subsidiary of EADS, France, is an earth observation satellite, while the micro satellite PROITERES, developed by students and faculty of Osaka Institute of Technology, will study Kansai region of Japanese island of Honshu.
India’s PSLV-C16 rocket today successfully launched into orbit the latest remote sensing satellite Resourcesat-2 that would study and help manage natural resources along with two nano satellites.
ISRO’s homegrown workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle placed in a ‘Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit’ Resourcesat-2, Youthsat and X-Sat about 18 minutes after it blasted off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre launch pad here, 90 km from Chennai, at 10.12 am.
“PSLV-C16 Resourcesat-2 mission is successful,” a jubilant Indian Space Research Organisation Chairman K. Radhakrishnan announced shortly after all the three satellites were hurled into space one after another 822 km above earth in a text book launch.
Besides Resourscesat-2, the PSLV rocket also launched Youthsat, weighing 92 kg, a joint Indo-Russian nanosatellite for stellar and atmospheric studies. The third satellite was 106-kg X-sat, an image applications spacecraft built by Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. This is the first time, ISRO is launching a Singapore-built satellite.
Radhakrishnan said the launch of two foreign satellites showed the PSLV”s reliability had been recognised internationally.
“It is a glad moment for the entire ISRO community. ISRO has proved its mettle and the mission performed exceedingly well. Its a reassurance to the nation that the confidence in ISRO is fully justified,” Mission Director P. Kunhikrishnan said in remarks that summed up the mood of the space scientists who needed the morale booster after the double GSLV failure.
It was anxiety all the way for the Indian space scientists at the Mission Control since the rocket blasted off and injected the satellites into space. Each stage of succesful separation was greeted with loud applause.
The Resourscesat-2 with three high resolution cameras on a single platform would capture images that will be useful in assessing the health of crops, monitoring deforestation and water levels in reservoirs and lakes besides the snow-melt in the Himalayas.
PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does it stand ISRO Latest News Images Definition
PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle 
ISRO officials said it would help in catering to the national and global data needs to address multiple aspects of resource inventory and monitoring in specific areas of applications including agriculture, water resources, rural development, bio-resources and geological exploration.
Data from the satellite would help in facilitating a variety of applications including disaster management and related activities.
Apart from the three cameras � with high, medium and coarse resolutions, Resourcesat-2 also has two solid state recorders with a capacity of 200 GB each to store images which can be accessed by the ground stations later.
It also carries Automatic Identification System (AIS) from COMDEV, Canada, as an experimental payload for ship surveillance in VHF band to derive position, speed and other information about ships.
Minister of State for Parliamentary Affiars and PMO V. Narayanaswamy described the succesful launch as a landmark event and said the Prime Minister and the government “are with the scientists to do more such work”.
This is a timeline of its achievements:-
1962 – Indian National Committee for Space Research set up by the Department of Atomic Energy. Work starts on Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in Kerala.
1963 – First sounding rocket launched from TERLS Nov 21.
1965 – Space Science and Technology Centre set up in Thumba.
1968 – Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station set up in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
1969 – Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) formed Aug 15 under the Department of Atomic Energy.
1971 – Satish Dhawan Space Centre (formerly SHAR Centre) formed in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
1972 – Department of Space (DoS) established and ISRO brought under it. ISRO Satellite Centre set up in Bangalore and Space Applications Centre in Ahmedabad.
1975 – Satellite Instructional Television Experiment using an US satellite. First Indian satellite, Aryabhata, launched into space April 19.
1977 – Satellite Telecommuncation Experiments Project (1977-79) using Franco-German Symphonie Satellite.
1979 – Bhaskara-1, an earth observation experimental satellite, launched. First experimental launch of Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) carrying the Rohini satellite. The satellite not placed in the orbit.
1980 – Second experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini. Mission successful.
1981 – First developmental launch of SLV-3. Rohini placed into orbit. Launch of APPLE, an experimental geo-stationary communication satellite. Launch of Bhaskara-2 by an USSR rocket.
1982 – Launch of Insat-1A communication satellite by an US rocket.
1983 – Second developmental flight of SLV-3 placed Rohini into orbit. Insat system commissioned with launch to Insat-1B satellite.
1984 – First Indian cosmonaut, Rakesh Sharma, spends eight days in Russian space station Salyut 7. He flew in Russian rocket Soyuz T-11.
1987 – First development launch of Augmented SLV (ASLV) with satellite SROSS-1. Mission failed.
1988 – Launch of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite – IRA-1A through a Russian rocket. Second developmental flight of ASLV with SROSS satellite. Mission failed.
1991 – Launch of second operational remote sensing satellite IRS-1B.
1992 – First successful launch of ASLV placing SROSS-C satellite. Launch of Insat-2A, the first satellite of the indigenously-built second generation Insat series, followed by the 3 and 4 series.
1993 – First development flight of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) with IRS-1E. Mission failed.
1994 – Fourth developmental flight of ASLV with SROSS-C2. Mission successful. Successful launch of PSLV placing IRS-P2 in orbit.
1996 – Third developmental flight of PSLV with IRS-P3.
1997 – First operational launch of PSLV carrying IRS-1D.
1999 – PSLV started carrying foreign payloads (Korean and German satellites) along with ISRO’s satellite Oceansat.
2001 – Successful launch of heavy rocket Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with GSAT-1 satellite. Launch of PSLV with India’s Technology Experimental Satellite and satellites from Belgium and Germany.
2002 – Launch of Kalpana-1 satellite on-board a PSLV rocket.
2003 – Launch of GSat-2 on board GSLV and Resourcesat-1 by PSLV.
2004 – Launch of Edusat by GSLV’s first operational flight.
2005 – Commissioning of second launch pad at Sriharikota. Launch of Cartosat-1 and Hamsat by PSLV.
2006 – Second operational flight of GSLV with Insat-4C. For the first time, an Indian rocket carried a communication satellite. The mission failed.
2007 – Launch of Cartosat-2 with Space Capsule Recovery Experiment and two foreign satellites and successful recovery of the space capsule. Launch of Italian satellite AGILE by PSLV and Insat-4CR by GSLV.
2008 – Launch of Israeli satellite Tecsar by PSLV. Launch of two Indian and eight foreign satellites by a single PSLV. India’s first moon mission Chandrayaan-1 by PSLV.
2009 – Launch of Radar Imaging Satellite (Risat-2) and Anusat from Anna University (first satellite from an Indian university) by PSLV. Launch of seven satellites by PSLV, including India’s Oceansat.
2010 – Failure of two GSLV missions. Launch of Cartosat-2B, STUDSAT and three small foreign satellites by PSLV.
2011 – Launch of Resourcest-2 and two small satellites by PSLV. Launch of GSAT-12 by PSLV. Launch of Megha Tropiques and three small satellites by PSLV.
2012 – Launch of Risat-1 by PSLV. Launch of French satellite SPOT 6 and Japanese satellite Proiteres.
PSLV-C21 Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle Does stand ISRO Latest News Images Video Definition
PSLV-C21 - One Man Made By
Development:-
PSLV was designed and developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The inertial systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram. The solid propellant motors are processed at Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, which also carries out launch operations. After some delays, the PSLV had its first launch on 20 September 1993. Although all main engines performed as expected, an altitude control problem was reported in the second and third stages. After this initial setback, ISRO met complete success with the third developmental launch in 1996. Further successful launches followed in 1997, 1999, and 2001.
PSLV continues to be the work horse of Indian satellite launches, especially for LEO satellites. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight.

Vehicle Description:-
The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid-fuel rocket boosters in the world and carries 138 tonnes of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) bound propellant with a diameter of 2.8 m. The motor case is made of maraging steel. The booster develops a maximum thrust of about 4,430 kN. Six strap-on motors, four of which are ignited on the ground, augment the first stage thrust. Each of these solid propellant strap-on motors carries nine tonnes of HTPB propellant and produces 677 kN thrust. Pitch and yaw control of the PSLV during the thrust phase of the solid motor is achieved by injection of an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate in the nozzle to constitute Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System (SITVC). The injection is stored in two cylindrical aluminum tanks strapped to the solid rocket motor and pressurized with nitrogen. There are two additional small liquid engine control power plants in the first stage, the Roll Control Thrusters (RCT), fixed radially opposite one on each side, between the triplet set of strap-on boosters. RCT is used for roll control during the first stage and the SITVC in two strap-on motors is for roll control augmentation.
The second stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 tonnes (40 tonnes till C-5 mission) of liquid propellant – Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer. It generates a maximum thrust of 800 kN (724 till C-5 mission). Pitch & yaw control is obtained by hydraulically gimbaled engine (±4°) and two hot gas reaction control for roll.
The third stage uses 7 tonnes of HTPB-based solid propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 324 kN. It has a Kevlar-polyamide fiber case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flex-bearing-seal gimbaled nozzle (±2°) thrust-vector engine for pitch & yaw control. For roll control it uses the RCS (Reaction Control System) of fourth stage.
The fourth and the terminal stage of PSLV has a twin engine configuration using liquid propellant. With a propellant loading of 2 tonnes (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine as fuel + Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen as oxidiser), each of these engines generates a maximum thrust of 7.4 kN. Engine is gimbaled (±3°) for pitch, yaw & roll control and for control during the coast phase uses on-off RCS. PSLV-C4 used a new lightweight carbon composite payload adapter to enable a greater GTO payload capability.
PSLV is developed with a group of wide-range control units.


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